The endometrium of women with endometriosis has a different expression of cytokines, angiogenic and hormonal factors compared to healthy women. Endometriosis is a disease occurring mostly in women at a reproductive age with a frequency of 7–10%. Despite many studies and hypotheses on the pathogenesis of the disease, marker specific to endometriosis has not yet been detected. Thus, laparoscopy remains the gold standard in the diagnosis, particularly in the case of peritoneal form that cannot be visualized by means of an ultrasound test. Other forms of endometriosis – ovarian (chocolate cysts) and deep infiltrating – can be identified in an ultrasound test. Scientists are currently searching for markers that in a specific combination would ensure maximum sensitivity and specificity of the non-invasive detection of endometriosis, even at early stages. The article presents selected factors, such as interleukin 8, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, nerve growth factor, detected in the endometrium, which can be a potential diagnostic target. Diagnoses made at the level of endometrium would facilitate the identification of endometriosis and would significantly reduce costs associated with the necessity to conduct laparoscopy.