Gravida’s knowledge concerning harmful effect of smoking on the fetus and the awareness of HPV infection impact on the development of cervical cancer
Affiliation and adress for correspondence

1 Gynecology-Obstetrics Teaching Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
2 Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland
3 Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
Correspondence: Barbara Kozakiewicz, MD, PhD, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Wawelska 15, 02-034 Warsaw, Poland, e-mail:

Curr Gynecol Oncol 2016, 14 (1), p. 13–22
DOI: 10.15557/CGO.2016.0002

Aim of the paper: The aim of the paper was to evaluate gravida’s knowledge concerning the harmful effect of smoking on the fetus and the awareness concerning the impact of nicotine on the development of cervical cancer in women infected with HPV. Material and method: The study covered 127 women – healthy gravidas provided with a specialist care of K clinic, inhabitants of cities and villages. The study was conducted from March to June 2015 with the utilization of a diagnostic survey. To that end, an author’s questionnaire was drafted, which consisted of 23 questions concerning smoking tobacco and respondent’s knowledge in terms of the HPV infection. Results: Responses of 127 women were evaluated, out of whom 76% had never smoked tobacco, 8% stopped smoking due to pregnancy and 16% limited smoking in that time or moved to “light” cigarettes, or used nicotine patches and limited smoking simultaneously. The majority of gravidas (94%) were aware that smoking is harmful to the child and toxic substances penetrate through the placenta; 76% knew that toxic substances also penetrate to breast milk. The largest group of women (36%) was exposed to passive smoking in own houses, among the closest family. A problem with motivation may be observed in the group of smoking gravidas – it may be necessary to consider obligatory consultations with a psychologist related to motivation and addiction for all the smokers being pregnant or planning their pregnancy. Moreover, the survey proved that young women lack basic knowledge in the field of HPV infection.

Keywords: smoking while pregnant, HPV, cervical cancer, nicotine smoke, passive and active smoking