Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare, potentially malignant condition, originating in the fetal tissue and developing inside maternal organism. Treatment of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, a worse form of GTD, is based on chemotherapy administered as single- or multi-drug protocols, selected depending on the presence of significant risk factors, while in some clinical situations surgical treatment may play a significant role. In particular, surgery is resorted to in cases of persistent disease, developing as a result of primary or secondary chemoresistance of the original pathology. In such a setting, adjuvant surgery, e.g. hysterectomy or excision of a single pulmonary GTD focus, considerably improves expected remission rate. Standard procedure performed in patients with chemoresistant, residual form of GTD is hysterectomy. The second most frequently performed procedure in GTD is excision of a pulmonary metastasis. Furthermore, surgical intervention in an emergency setting (e.g. massive hemorrhage) is relatively frequent in GDT. Apart of hysterectomy, available surgical options include hemostatic suture of bleeding tissue, ligation of internal iliac arteries or interventional radiology aiming at selective embolization of uterine arteries. Therefore, surgery plays an important role in eradication of persistent and chemoresistant forms of GTD and may be life-saving in emergency situations.