Selected risk factors of endometrial cancer
Affiliation and adress for correspondence

Correspondence to: Katedra i Klinika Ginekologii Onkologicznej i Pielęgniarstwa Ginekologicznego, Centrum Onkologii w Bydgoszczy, ul. dr I. Romanowskiej 2, 85-796 Bydgoszcz
Source of financing: Department own sources

GIN ONKOL, 2004, 2 (3), p. 186-194
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Objectives: Endometrial carcinoma occurs most often in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Only 5% of the cases occur in patients below the age of 40. Many studies support the opinion that the long-term estrogenic stimulation of endometrium, late menopause, low fertility index, obesity and the socio-economic conditions play an important role in the development of endometrial cancer. Moreover, women with estrogen-secreting ovarian tumors are at high risk of this disease, as are women with myomas or breast cancer. Design: The aim of our study was to evaluate selected risk factors for endometrial cancer. Material and methods: From 1994 to 1998, a total of 366 women with endometrial cancer were retrospectively examined in Oncological Center in Bydgoszcz. Several factors that are possibly associated with the risk of endometrial cancer were analyzed: the age of the disease onset, menopausal status, parity, concomitant illnesses, first signs and symptoms of the disease. Results: 229 patients (62.6%) came from city environment (industrial region) and 137 (37.4%) from small towns and villages. In the study group only 11 women (3%) had a university degree, whereas 266 (72.7%) had a elementary education. Endometrial carcinoma occurred most often in patients over 60 years of age and menopausal age between 50 and 60. More than half of the patients were nulliparous or delivered less than 2 times (185 – 50.5%). We have noticed high rates of concomitant diseases (myomas – 7.1%, breast cancer – 9%, obesity – 28.4%, cholecystolithiasis – 34.6%) occurring with endometrial cancer. Conclusions: 1. Patients’ age is an independent risk factor of endometrial carcinoma. 2. Obese women with diabetes, hypertension and breast cancer are at a higher risk and therefore should undergo appropriate prophylaxis, especially if abnormal bleeding occurs. 3. Due to high rate (7.1%) of concomitant occurrence of myomas and endometrial cancer, curettage and endometrial biopsy should be performed before surgery.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, risk factors