High mortality rate from cervical cancer in our country still remains a burning problem. The epidemiological data have been unsatisfactory for many years despite the fact that diagnostic tests enabling the secondary prevention of this cancer have been in use since the works of Papanicolaou. Over the recent years, there have been numerous programs aiming at early detection of cervical cancer in Poland and the number of cytologic smears is increasing. Unfortunately, it is not mirrored in the mortality rate. The cause of this situation is in question, as well as the possibility of adapting European experience, Scandinavian in particular, to the Polish conditions. It would require additional staff training and increasing the efficacy of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures being carried out. According to the authors, the key element is providing a logistic background to organize mass screening. Applying the guidelines of early detection to the Polish health service seems to be the only way to improve the epidemiological figures of cervical cancer.